David G. Malick
Stephen Andrew Missick
The Nestorian Christians of Socotra
Socotra is an island off of the coast of east Africa that is governed by Yemen. For centuries all the inhabitants of the islands of Socotra belonged the Ancient Assyrian Church of the East, which was known as the Nestorian Church. The Ancient Catholic and Apostolic Church of the East was a missionary church that founded Christian communities in Mongolia, China, and India while Western Europe was sleeping through its ‘Dark Ages.’ The Assyrian Church of the East thrived for centuries in these lands yet most of its churches were eradicated by Islamic warriors, leaving only the churches of India and a community in the original Assyrian homeland of the region of modern Iraq and Iran. One of the longest lasting churches established by Assyrian missionaries, that eventually also fell victim to the Muslim Jihad, was the Nestorian Church of the Island of Socotra which endured for over a thousand years.
The Assyrian Church of the East and the Island of Socotra
While Western Christendom was slumbering through the Dark Ages in Europe, the Assyrian Christians of the Ancient Church of the East in Mesopotamia were dutifully carrying out Jesus Christ’s Great Commission to carry his message of hope and love to the distant corners of the world1. With a fervent zeal Assyrian missionaries spread the Christian gospel to India, China, Mongolia, and Socotra, an isolated island in the midst of the Indian Ocean2.
The Assyrians speak Syriac, a living form of the Aramaic language spoken by Jesus of
Nazareth3. Their ancestral homeland is northern Iraq and western Iran. The Assyrian Church of the East was founded directly by the Hebrew Christians of Jerusalem and by the evangelists who were from among Christ’s twelve apostles and seventy disciples. According to ancient traditions Thomas and Thaddeus were the first to preach among the Assyrians. Since Jesus, his disciples and the Assyrians were Aramaic speakers; Christianity came directly to the Assyrians through its original Semitic source and wasn’t filtered through Greek, Roman or any other pagan culture. The Assyrian church’s primitive Christian origins can be seen in references in the Doctrine of
Addai and the Hebrew Christian origin of the Peshitta version of the Old Testament4. Of the Assyrian Church fathers who were wholly Semitic there are Aphpharat and Ephraim. Later Syriac church fathers were profoundly influenced by the Greek thinking. Sebastian Brock notes in “An Introduction to Syriac Studies”:
The earliest major [Syriac] authors…are virtually untouched by Greek culture and
they offer us an essentially Semitic form of Christianity, quite different in many
respects from the Christianity of the Greek and Latin speaking world of the
Mediterranean littoral. From the fifth century onwards the Syriac speaking
churches underwent a rapid hellenization with the result that no subsequent
writers entirely escaped the influence of Greek culture in some form or another.
This specifically Semitic aspect of the earliest Syriac literature has been curiously
neglected, despite its potential interest for the study of primitive Christianity as a
The Assyrian Christians of the Church of the East came to be called Nestorian after Nestorius, a Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 until 432, whose Christological doctrine and method of Biblical interpretation was accepted by the Assyrians in that they mirrored those of their own ancient traditions. Nestorian Christians are not and never were heretics. The Assyrian Church of the East holds fast to the tenants of the Nicene Creed, and affirms the core doctrines of the Virgin Birth, the Holy Trinity, the Deity of Christ (meaning that Christ is God the Son as well as being the eternal Son of God), the literal and physical resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead as well as the other basic doctrines held by all Christians whether they be Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox or Protestant6.
Assyrians were active in world trade centered along the Silk Road (the Silk Road is the name of the caravan routes frequented by merchants who traded between Europe, China and India). Assyrian merchants and missionaries planted churches in Central Asia, China and India. The Assyrian Church of the East is one of the most dynamic missionary churches in all of Christian history. Ian Gilman and Hans-Joachim give the founding of the church in Socotra as an example of the global expansiveness of the Church of the East. In Christians in Asia Before 1500 they state that:
A further example of Nestorian expansion is provided by the church on the island of Socotra, which dates from the 6th century and was to continue its life down until destruction by the Muslims after the period which concerns us here . The traveler Cosmas Indicopleustes found Christians there in the 6th century and we have records of consecrations of bishops for the island under the Patriarch Enush in 880 and Sabr-ishu III (d. AD 1072). Marco Polo (d. 1324) reported a bishop there who owed allegiance not to the pope in Rome but to a Patriarch at Baghdad, and the Bishop of Socotra was present at the consecration of Yaballah III as Patriarch in AD 12827.
Socotra serves as an example of the zeal and rigid determination of the Assyrian Christians to take the gospel of Jesus Christ even to the most desolate and inaccessible regions on earth.
St. Thomas on Socotra
Saint Thomas is held by tradition to be the founder of the churches in Assyria, Chaldea, Babylonia, India and Socotra. On his way to India Thomas was shipwrecked on the isle of Socotra and he used the wreckage of the ship to build a church. According to the ancient account of the missionary endeavors of Saint Thomas entitled The Acts of Thomas he did visit a mysterious island while in route to India and preformed miraculous feats there8. The Socotran Christians were called Thomas Christians and belonged to the Assyrian “Nestorian” Church of the East. (The Syriac Christians of India also call themselves Thomas Christians.) St. Francis Xavier notes that the people of Socotra, with whom he visited during a sojourn on their island, “… are devotees of the Apostle St. Thomas and claim to be descendants of the Christians he converted in that part of the world9.” Several archeologists, anthropologists and historians working on the Island of Socotra have noted the ministry of St. Thomas among the Socotrans. G. W. B. Huntingford notes that
The inhabitants seem always to have been a mixed people. Some of them at one period were Christians, converted it was said by St. Thomas in AD 52 while on his way to India. Abu Zaid Hassan, an Arab geographer of the 10th century, said that in his time most of the inhabitants of Socotra were Christian… but by the beginning of the 16th century Christianity had almost disappeared. leaving little trace but stone crosses at which Alvares said the people worshipped…However, a group of people was found here by St. Francis Xavier in 1542, claiming to be descended from the converts made by St. Thomas…10
Travelers Accounts of the Assyrian Christian community of Socotra
Socotra is a land of myths and legends. The Phoenicians believed Socotra to be the abode of the Phoenix, a mythical bird believed by the ancients to fly from Socotra to Heliopolis in Egypt once every 500 years to rejuvenate itself in a sacred flame. Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Diodorus of Sicily mention Socotra in regards to this legend. The description of Socotra by Diodorus of Sicily however, does contain authentic details about the island11. Later Arabs believed the island to be the dwelling place of the rukh, or roc, the mythological gigantic bird that has a prominent place in the voyages of Sinbad the Sailor12. The Pharaohs of Egypt also sent expeditions to Socotra to acquire Myrrh which was then as costly as gold13.
In ancient times Indians traveled to Socotra. They gave the island its name which is Sanskrit for “Island abode of Bliss”. According to Shipbuilding and Navigation in Ancient India
In those days India had colonies, in Cambodia (Kumbuja in Sanskrit) in Sumatra, in Borneo, Socotra (Sukhadhara) and even in Japan. Indian traders had established settlements in Southern China, in the Malayan peninsula, in Arabia, in Egypt, in Persia, etc. Through the Persians and Arabs, India had cultivated trade relations with the Roman Empire14.
These trade relations enabled St. Thomas to evangelize Socotra and India.
Alexander the Great is believed to have conquered the island of Socotra in order to have the aloe for his army. A Greek presence continued up past the time Socotra was converted to Christianity. Socotra is rich in myrrh and aloes. Ancient peoples recognized medicinal value of aloe. Aloe and Myrrh were even used to anoint the body of Jesus the Christ upon his removal from the cross. Socotra continues to supply the world with aloe as it did in ancient times15.
The Periplyus of the Erythraean Sea is an ancient Greek mariners manual from around the year 60 AD. This book shows that Greek sailors knew the island and it is thus entirely possible that Thomas could have made his journey there. The missionary endeavor of St. Thomas to Socotra and India is believed to have taken place in 52 AD. The author of The Periplyus of the Erythraean Sea describes Socotra by saying,
There is an island…it is called Dioscorida [meaning Socotra], and it is very large but desert and marshy…the inhabitants are few and they live on the coast towards the north, which from this side faces the continent. There are foreigners, a mixture of Arabs, and Indians, and Greeks, who have emigrated to carry on trade there16.
An important early Christian leader who was himself most likely a Socotran was Theophilus. Unfortunately he was also a heretic. He is also known as Theophilus the Arian and Theophilus the Indian. (Until the voyage of Columbus the Indies from the European viewpoint included East Africa and the islands in the Indian Ocean as well as India proper.) Theophilus was an adherent of Arianism, a heresy that was widespread through the church for centuries. Arius, the originator of this pernicious fallacy, denied the Holy Trinity and the Deity of Christ. Samuel Hugh Moffett describes the ministry of Theophilus and his missionary journeys that took place in 354AD. He states
Theophilus “the Indian” a native of the islands in the Arabian or Indian Ocean …was held in Rome as a hostage, converted to Christianity, and was sent by emperor Constantinius on an embassy that included visit to Arabia, to his homeland in the islands, and to “other parts of India17.”
Cosmas the Indian Voyager, called Indicopluestes, was a Nestorian Christian from Alexandria in Egypt. He was a merchant and traveled widely. He wrote a twelve volume work recounting his travels entitled Tropographis Indica Christiania , which translated is A Christian Topography of the Whole World. He wrote this work in 536 AD recollecting his journeys he made throughout the Indian Ocean, in Ethiopia and the coasts of India in 522 AD. He describes the Assyrian Church firmly established and growing throughout the world saying;
We found the church…very widely diffused, and the whole world filled with the doctrine of Christ, which is being day by day propagated, and the gospel preached over the whole earth. This I have seen with my own eyes in many places and have heard narrated by others. I, as a witness of the truth can relate…18
Cosmas goes on to mention the Assyrian churches in Sri Lanka and Kerela, India. He then continues, “…and in the place called Kalliana (Quilan) there is a bishop usually ordained in Persia, as well as in the isle of Dioscoris (Socotra) in the same Indian Sea…You will find priests ordained in Persia sent there, there are also a number of Christians19.” So by the early 500s we have an account by a member of the Assyrian Church establishing the fact that by that time ‘Nestorian’ Christianity had been firmly established on the Island of Socotra. The famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo (1254-1324) accuses the Socotrans of having the supernatural ability to control the weather and to cause shipwrecks. He wrote of Socotra saying:
The inhabitants [of Socotra] are baptized Christians and have and archbishop…I should explain that the archbishop of Socotra has nothing to do with the Pope at Rome, but is subject to an archbishop who lives at Baghdad [meaning the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East]. The archbishop of Baghdad sends out the archbishop of this island; and he also sends out many others to different parts of the world, just as the Pope does…I give you my word that the Christians of this island are the most expert enchanters in the world. It is true that the archbishop does not approve of these enchantments and rebukes them for the practice. But this has no effect, because they say that their forefathers did these things of old and they are resolved to go on doing them. And the archbishop cannot override their resolve20.
Arab accounts also describe witchcraft and sorcery as being prevalent among the Socotrans.
Afonso the Great, (also known as Afonso de Albuquerque) who lived from 1453 until 1515, was a Portuguese admiral and founder of the Portuguese Empire in the East. He captured Socotra from the Muslims and established Portuguese rule over the island. The memory of the Portuguese lives on among the Socotrans who have many legends about their Portuguese era. The language of Portugal also influenced the vocabulary of the Socotran language. The Portuguese saw themselves as liberators of the Christian Socotrans from Islamic persecution. The Socotrans came to look upon the Portuguese as foreign oppressors so much that they came to prefer Arab rule to Portuguese rule, especially after the Portuguese attempted to force them to adopt European Roman Catholic practices. An early Portuguese report on the island of Socotra was provided for Dom Manuel I, King of Portugal in 1505 by Diego Fernandes Pereira. Near the same time Martin Fernandez de Figuera of Salamanca wrote of the Socotran Christians with whom he dwelt for four months. Nicolau de Orta Rebelo noted that all the Socotran men were named Thomas and all of the women were named Mary. In 1527 Martin Alfonso de Melo remarked that there were many Christians on Socotra21. In 1541 Portuguese Admiral Dom Joao de Castro stated that, “the Socotrans revere the Gospel. They say that they were introduced to it by the blessed apostle St. Thomas through whom they proclaim our religion. There are many churches all over the island, each crowned with the cross of the Most High22.”
Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552) is one of the most important early Roman Catholic missionaries to the Far East. In regards to Socotra and it’s Christians he said
The natives esteem themselves to be Christians and are very proud of it. They can neither read or write, possess no books nor other sources of information, and are very ignorant. But they have churches, crosses, and ritual lamps, and in each of village there is a caciz, who corresponds to a priest among us. Having no bells, they summon the people to services with wooden clapers, such as we have during Lent23.
Other travelers contradict the statement of St. Francis and noted that the Socotrans did possess books written in Syriac characters. St. Francis and other Catholic travelers probably exaggerated the level of ignorance of the Socotrans. This is probably an exaggeration due to the contempt with which the Catholics until very recently have held members of the Assyrian Church who they viewed as ‘vile and pestilent Nestorian heretics’. It should be borne in mind that Francis Xavier himself recommended that the Holy Office of the Inquisition should be activated in India to deal with the Assyrian Christians there.
An example of the hatred of the Roman Catholic towards the Assyrian Christians is their forced conversion of members of the Church of the East in India and in Socotra. Francis M. Rogers notes in The Quest for Eastern Christians that
In the mid-1500s an adaptation of a letter from King Joao III to Pope Paul III was published in both Italian and French editions. It summarizes the conversions affected under Portuguese auspices from Socotra to Moluccas, reports military reverses in Ethiopia, and mentions St. Francis Xavier. It speaks of the “conversion” of the St. Thomas Christians in a manner suggesting the same classification as Saracens [Muslims] and pagans24.
Arabs also wrote important accounts of the Nestorian Christians of the Isle of Socotra. In 1488-1489 Ibn Magdid commented that Socotra was a Christian island ruled over by a woman. Al-Masudi, the famous Arabic geographer, wrote an account of the island. He died in 956 AD. Al-Hamdani, another Arabic geographer, wrote of Socotra and its Christians. He mentions monks being on the island. Al-Hammadi died in 945 AD.25 Yaqut writing in the thirteenth century described the inhabitants as “Christian Arabs”.
Yaqut al-Hammadi also notes that some of the Nestorian Christians of Socotra were Greeks and says,
The Masih, son of Maryam [Jesus Christ] appeared — peace be upon him – and the Greeks who stayed there [on the Isle of Socotra] adopted Christianity and remain Christians until the present time. Allah knows that there is no other place in the Universe except Socotra Island where there would live a population of Greeks which would retain its lineage without having anybody else mix with it26.
Ibn Battutah (1304-1369), the famous Arabian traveler, also traveled by the Island of Socotra27. Later England attempted to dominate Socotra because of its strategic location. In 1886 Socotra became a British Protectorate. During de-colonization Socotra was given to Yemen. In Socotra, the Island of Dreams Ibrahim Al-Ashwami and Abdul Wali Al-Muthabi state that Socotra’s “strategic importance…rises from the fact that its location is in the mid-center of all Arab and African coasts, related to Asia and Africa continents.28”
The Land That Time Forgot
Socotra is also called Asqo’tra, Sou’qatra and Soqotra. Other spellings include Suqutra and Socotora. The names derives from the Sanskrit word Sukhadara or Dripa Sukhadara which means ‘Island abode of Bliss’ The Ancient Greeks called it Dioskourdiou or Discordia. Socotra is also called the Isle of Mists and the Island of the Dragon’s Blood Tree. The Socotra Archipelago consists of Socotra and three outlying islands, Abd al-Kuri, Samha and Darsa. Socotra is the home of rare liquid products frankincense, black oblillnum and Dragons Blood. It exports aloes and herbal remedies. Socotra is the largest island in the Arab World. The deep waters of the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean surround the island yet the waters immediately around the island are shallow and infested with sharks and pirates.
Socotra is an extremely isolated island due to the monsoon winds that make it impossible to reach for half of the year. Due to its isolation unique plant life lives there, life-forms survive there that became extinct elsewhere in the world tens of thousands of years ago. The best article on the island of Socotra is Soqotras Misty Future written by Diccon Alexander and Anthony Miller and published in the July 1995 edition of New Scientist. This article is available on the Internet on the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh Soqotra page. This site features an awesome virtual reality tour of the island through several panoramic photographs that gives a 360-degree view in which you can zoom in and out of with close-ups.29 Dr. Robert Mill of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburg Scotland wrote me and said, “The small Indian Ocean island of Socotra contains one of the richest and best preserved dry tropical floras in the world, over one third of the plant species and endemic and it is internationally recognized as a centre of exceptional biodiversity.31“The United Nations declared in Soqotra: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Soqotra Island: Present and Future, “The Island of Socotra is undoubtedly a most precious natural asset. It has been nominated as a ‘World Heritage Site’ and as a ‘Man and Biosphere Reserve’. It has a rich and unique biodiversity that is unrivalled in the Indian Ocean and in the Arabian Region31“.
Socotra is often compared to the Galapagos, the South American island whose unique wild life provoked Charles Darwin to invent the theory of evolution. The World Wildlife Federation declared, “The Socotran Archipelago has such a unique assemblage of animal and plant species that it has been described as an Arabian Eden. The islands are known for their plant diversity, including the dragon’s blood tree and a variety of succulents…While currently relatively pristine, the ecoregion has had along history of human occupation and over 50 endemic plants are listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Socotran Archipelago remains vulnerable to increased human activity and tourist and industrial development.”32 Strange animals have also been found on Socotra.
The Socotra Kurst Project has reported the recent discovery of more unusual life forms discovered by speleologists, including that of long tailed bats33. Socotra’s plants, which are living relics of the prehistoric world, are often described as ‘most bizarre’ as ‘weird vegetation’ and ‘grotesque’. There are also many examples of gigantism in these relics of ancient flora. The most important odd plants are the Dragon’s Blood Tree, also known as the ‘inside out umbrella tree’, and the grotesque bottle shaped Adenium tree. Socotra was a forgotten island until Quenton Cronk’s botanic expedition in 1985. Diccon Alexander noted that, “Off the Horn of Africa lies the forgotten island of Socotra, for centuries home to some of the worlds most bizarre plants…Relics of ancient species are so abundant that the island looks like most people’s idea of a prehistoric world34” or a strange other-worldly landscape created by a more imaginative writer of science fiction. He further states that, “Until at least 10 million years ago Socotra was part of the African mainland and before that a part of the African-Arabian tectonic plate. Today the ancestors of plants from these ancient landscapes and still be found growing on the island.36”
The island is approximately 72 miles long and 22 miles across from north to south, and it lies over 500 miles south-east of Aden and about 300 miles from Mukalla, port of the Hadramawt. The island of Socotra lies in the Indian Ocean near the ancient sea routes from the Red Sea to India and East Africa. Travelers and scholars have long considered it to have great archeological potential. Socotra has also been a source of interests to linguists; in addition there is a wealth of material for specialists in the fields of botany and ornithology36.
Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra Volume I by A. G. Miller and T. A.Cope relates that;
The Socotra archipelago consists of four islands-Socotra, ‘abd al Kuri, Semhah and Darsa-situated in the northern part of the Indian Ocean due east of Somalia… the climate of Socotra is influenced by both SW and NE monsoons. The SW monsoon blows from April until October bringing hot, dry winds which are generally desiccating but bring a little orographic rain to the mountains. Most precipitation occurs from November to March; during this period the SW winds are replaced by much lighter rains from the NE… Rainfall is very sporadic and in some years the costal areas receive none. Average measurements for the plain are around 150 mm and the mountains probably receive around 500 mm. Most rain falls in winter. The mountains are frequently shrouded in clouds and heavy dews are common37.
Topographically the island can be divided into 3 main zones; the coastal plains, the limestone plateau and the Hagghier Mountains.
According to AYTTA (The Association of Yemen Tourism and Travel Agencies) the best period to visit the island is from 15 October until 15 May. The winds sweep some parts of the island in the remaining period of the year38. According to Island of the Dragon’s Blood
It was a rugged country, with an overall limestone plateau averaging 1,500 feet in height, through which projected a central mountain range, the Haggier Massif, reaching nearly 5,000 feet. These mountains constituted one of the oldest land structures in the world and had been an ark of refuge for many strange and primitive forms of plants and lower animal life, found nowhere else. Frankincense, myrrh, dragon’s blood, cucumber and pomegranate trees grew there, …People lived on this island and they were of two sorts: on the coast were a mixed lot of Arabs and Africans; in the mountains lived the true Sokotri, who were aboriginals isolated on the island “from time immemorial”, living in caves, talking a unique language that nobody knew, subsisting on dates and milk39.
The Socotra Tribesmen
Socotrans speak a Semitic language distinct from Arabic. It is called Soqotri. The Enchanted Island: Socotra Reveals Its Secrets it is mentioned that,
The traditions of the Socotran natives differ from those of other Yemenis in that they are influenced by all of the nearby major regions: the Arabian Peninsula, the Horn of Africa and India. The Socotran people have their own language, which is a holdover from the ancient Himyaritic language. They share this language or variations of it with the people of Al-Mahara in Yemen and Dhofar in Oman40.
The Socotrans are impoverished and isolated. The population of Socotra is estimated to between 20,000 and 80,000. Many of the mountain dwellers are troglodytes, living in caves. The coastal people are fisherman and pearl divers and are of African origin. They live in shacks made from palm leaves and tree limbs. Arab nomads dwell in the wadis. The Bedouin are shepherds and subsistence farmers41. There is racial diversity on the island. White Arabs live in the mountains and some Africans live on the coast. Tribal culture there is so strong that the people cannot even chop down a tree without consulting the tribal counsel. Socotra is isolated and inaccessible. Its people manage to eke out a wretched and poverty stricken existence. Socotrans are largely cut off from the rest of the world for five month of the year. Indian Ocean monsoon storms whip up violent seas making it impossible for the island to be resupplied by sea. (Socotra is usually reached by Dhow, an Arab sailing boat, from the coast of Yemen)42. The winds also make it dangerous to be reached by plane or helicopter.
The Assyrian Christians of Socotra
What were the practices of the Socotran members of the Church of the East? They recited the Syriac liturgy and memorized it even though they didn’t understand the language. According to Douglas Botting
On this outpost of the Arab world a race of people impervious to the great tide of Islam, who had retained some remnants of the Christian faith for nearly a thousand years after the birth of Mohamet. But such remnants had been strangely corrupted. As one Portuguese ship’s writer had noted in the sixteenth century: “The Socotrans call themselves Christians but lack instruction and baptism, so that they have nothing but the name of Christians…” At this time the Socotrans still revered the cross, placing it on altars and hanging it round their necks. Every village had a minister who repeated prayers antiphonetically in a forgotten tounge [probably Edessan Syriac], scattering incense. Words like “Alleluia” often occurred and instead of ringing bells they shook wooden rattles. A century later a Carmelite friar, P. Vincenzo, observed the last vestiges of Christianity on Socotra. The people, though they still professed Christianity, had no real knowledge and practiced a strange jumble of rites-they sacrificed to the moon, abominated wine and pork, circumcised, regarded the Cross with ignorant reverence and carried it before them in processions. They assembled in their low, dark, dirty churches three times a day and three time a night. They burned incense, and anointed their altars with butter. Placing a Cross and candle on top of them. Witchcraft was practiced, and the people often committed suicide in old age. Each family had a cave in which it buried its dead. They were all strictly monogamous.43
The continued rejection of the Islamic practice of polygamy is probably the only Christian custom preserved by the Socotrans44.
Are there old books and are archeological remains pertaining to the Assyrian Church in Socotra? There are remains of churches and shrines and there are several inscriptions bearing the cross. Christian burial was practiced by the Socotrans. In Socotra: island of Tranquility the discovery of Christian tombs is described in the following manner.
Caves in the limestone rocks have been filled with human bones from which the flesh had previously decayed. These caves were then walled up and left as charnel houses, after the fashion still observed in the Eastern Christian Church. Among the bones they found carved wooden objects that looked as if they had originally served as crosses to mark the tombs…45
Most Christian remains have been destroyed by Muslem extremists. Several books deal with archeological excavations that have been undertaken on the island.
Douglas Botting in Island of the Dragon’s Blood
We found traces of this past Christianity on the island. Not in the beliefs of the people but in the enigmatic stone remains dotted all over the island…There was nothing about these buildings which indicated that they were specifically Christian but they were much larger and more elaborate than the houses of the present-day Bedouin, and it seemed reasonable that they were the work of a more energetic and technically advanced people-in fact, the Christian ancestors of the came-dwellers of today…Here they sat chanting in choir alternately the uncomprehended language [Syriac], repeating three times a day the strange warped vestiges of the faith their ancestors had been taught by Thomas46.
Islamic fanaticism brought to the people of Socotra, as it has in many other places, a great decline. Many structures bearing Christian symbolism have been defaced. Ruins that have been confirmed to be the remains of churches have been excavated by archeologists. Several inscriptions of crosses have been preserved. D. Brian Doe in Socotra: An Archeological Reconnaissance in 1967 reports excavations of churches and notes that
My aim was to visit Kalleesa, a name which here indicates a strong link (ekklesia, Greek) with a Christian Church, in this case presumably a very early one. However, if Kalleesa was a village, the name could have also been vested in the district. One might wonder is the families in this area represent the descendents of those people…who, under the guidance of St. Thomas are thought to have built the first Church in Socotra…47
Researchers have tried to search out ancient Syriac manuscripts on Socotra. In Socotra: Island of Tranquility Brian Doe describes his failed attempt.
At as late a period as when the Portuguese visited Socotra they found on it books, written in the Chaldean character [the East Syrian Syriac script]. I hoped consequently to be able to procure some manuscripts or books that might serve to throw light on the history of the island; but in answer to repeated inquiries regarding such, I was assured that some, which they acknowledge to have possessed they left in their houses when they fled into the hills, and that the Wahhabees, during their visit, destroyed or carried them off. The former is most probable, as these sectaries, in the genuine spirit of Omar’s precepts, value only one book.48
The Demise of the Church of the East on Socotra
According to Bethany world Prayer Center
The Socotrans remained faithful to their [Christian] beliefs as late as 1542, when St. Francis [Xavier] visited them on his way to India. Sadly, by 1680, Christianity was virtually extinct, due to oppression by the Arabs and the neglect of the Nestorian patriarchs to support the mission on the island.49
The patriarchs are not entirely to blame due to the crisis and persecution they were facing at the time they were unable to support the mission. The Socotrans continued devotion to their Christian identity while they had neither ecclesiastical leaders nor religious education is to be admired. Despite the isolation and loss of contact with it’s mother church, the Socotrans remained committed to their Christian identity. It took an armed attack by Muslim fanatics from Arabia to deal the deathblow the Nestorian Church on Socotra.
According to Vitaly V. Naumkin in The Island of the Pheonix: An Ethnographic Study of the People of Socotra.
In the Mid-17th century there were still traces of Christianity on Socotra,
according to Vincenzo , and Carmelite monk and Samuel Purchas…In 1800 the
Wahhibis landed on Socotra, destroying the cemetery and the churches in the
coastal area around Hadiba and establishing control over the Muslem ritual by the
Douglas Botting in Island of the Dragon’s Blood states that, “The Bedouin [of Socotra] are well aware that their ancestors were Christian There is no indication of Christian practices at the present day.51”
The non-Arab Semitic island of Socotra is now ruled over by the Arabs of Yemen. In historical overviews of the island the disingenuous Yemenis omit any reference to the existence of Christianity on the island. Typically the Arabs not only discount the Socotrans former tenacious Christian faith but also their current distinct ethnic identity. The language is misleadingly described as “Arabian”, (it may be ‘Arabian’ but it is not directly related to Arabic). Yemen Exploration Tours states that, “The inhabitants of the mountains…are nomads and descendants of an old South Arabian tribe speaking still the old Arabian dialect Soqotri related to the Mahri dialect.52” These languages are not dialects of Arabic as implied but distinct Semitic languages. The Island is described as the largest island in the Arab world it would be more accurate to describe it as the largest non-Arabic island in the Arab world. Assyrians, Berbers and Kurds receive similar treatment in other parts of the Arab world. These ethnic minorities suffer their culture denigrated, their historical and cultural contributions ignored and their very existence denied. The cultures of the indigenous peoples are under serious threat in these lands. Also Christian artifacts that are discovered may be vandalized by Muslim fanatics. We should remember the fate of pre-Islamic antiquities in Afghanistan under the Taliban. This is why we must document our history so we can at least preserve records of it before Islamic extremists attempt to erase the memories. The Assyrians should begin a museum that documents the achievements of the Church of the East to serve this purpose.
Currently Yemen is very welcoming to all scientists interested in doing field work on Socotra and may also welcome an Assyrian expedition, but the expedition if it ever sets off should be discreet and thorough in its documentation53. The prospects of finding additional remains are slim. Botting states
In 1800 the fanatical and puritanical south Arabian tribe, the Wahabees, attacked Socotra, destroyed tombs, churches, and graveyards on the coast around Hadibo, and terrified the Bedouin into formally accepting the Mohammedan faith54.
After his expedition in 1880 Professor Balfour declared
What has been done by this expedition is but a fragment of what is there to be accomplished…It happens that on this island within but three weeks’ journey from England, there dwells a people whose origin is lost in myth, and of whose speech the true relations are undetermined, who according to received reports, having obtained some degree of civilization and embraced Christianity have gone back from their advance position to the lower state in which we now find them and thus present to us a feature of great interest to the history of mankind. There is now on Socotra alone a wealth of material for explanation and investigation, which would amply reward the work of another expedition55.
Though technological advances have reduced travel time drastically, his words hold true today, much work remains to be done on Socotra. Recently environmentalists, spelunkers, biologist, biochemists, algologists, ichthyologists, ethnologists, botanists, ornithologists, philologists and speleologists have descended on Socotra for various scientific pursuits. Assyrians should also support research to find and preserve relics from the past of the Church of the East.
Special thanks to Johanna Sidey of the World conservation Monitoring Center, Dr. Robert A. Mill of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, Scotland and Bette Craig of the Inter-library Loan Office of Sam Houston State University.
1 Matthew 28:19 “Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and
of the Holy Spirit , teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded thee.” See also Mark 16:15-
18 and Acts of the Apostles1:8. Scripture taken from The Holy Bible: 21st Century King James Version (KJV21)
Copyright 1994 Duel Enterprises, Inc. Gary , SD 57237, and used by permission.
2 Concerning the missionary accomplishments of the Assyrian Church see Marin Palmer The Jesus Sutras:
Rediscovering the Lost Scrolls of Taoist Christianity (Ballatine Wellspring, New York 2001) This is a good
collection of Assyrian Christian texts discovered in China and Central Asia. It is useful but I take offense at Mr.
Palmer calling the holy Church of the East “Taoist Christian”. Mr. Palmer attempts to take a radical departure from
orthodoxy based on his misinterpretations of these texts. I will explore the ‘Jesus Sutras’ and the Assyrian Church in
China and its contributions in an upcoming paper.
3 Assyrians speak Neo-Aramaic today which is sometimes called Syriac yet distinct from Classical Syriac of Edessa.
According to S. G. Pothan in The Syrian Christians “Aramaic was the language of Jesus Christ and his apostles.
Syriac is a dialect of Aramaic and became the language of the mother church of Persia.” S. G. Pothan The Syrian
Christians of Kerala (Asia Publishing Company, New York 1963) p. 36 For more information about the Syriac
Christian heritage see: W. Stewart McCullough A Short History of Syriac Christianity to the Rise of Islam (Scholars
Press, Chiro, CA 1982) and also Sebastian P. Brock and David G. K. Taylor The Hidden Pearl: The Syrian
Orthodox Church and its Ancient Aramaic Heritage Volume I: the Ancient Aramaic Heritage Volume II: The Heirs
of the Ancient Aramaic Heritage Volume III At the Turn of the Third Millennium , the Syrian Orthodox Witness
(Trans World film, Italia, 2001) accompanied with 3 videotapes.
4 For the issues concerning the origin of the Assyrian Church and of the Peshitta Bible see Han J.W. Drijvers “Facts
and Problems in Early Syriac Speaking Christianity” East of Antioch: Studies in Early Syriac Christianity (Variorum
Reprints, London 1984) p. 157-175 M. P. Weitzman The Syriac Version of the Old Testament: An Introduction
(Cambridge University Press) George Howard trans. The Teaching of Addai (Scholars Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan,
5 Sebastian Brock “Introduction to Syriac Studies” J. H. Eaton, Ed. Horizons in Semitic Studies: Articles For the
Student (University of Birmingham 1980) p.4-5.
6 The Roman Catholic pope cleared the Assyrian Church of the heresy libel in “Common Christological Declaration
Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East” in November 11, 1994 presented in The
Messenger: The Official Publication of the Holy Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East Issue Number 11 March 31,
- However, the theology of the Assyrian Church was declared orthodox by the western church several times in
the past. According to Samuel Hugh Moffett this occurred during the times of Acacius (485-496 AD), Mar Aba
(early 6th century), Yeshuyab (early 7th century) and during Rabban Sauma the Mongol’s delegation to Europe in
- It should also be noted that Nestorius declared the Tomeof Pope Leo as an expression of his own position.
Samuel Hugh Moffett A History of Christianity in Asia Volume I: Beginnings to 1500 (Harper San Francisco 1992)
- 196,219,256 & 434.
7 Ian Gillman and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit Christians in Asia before 1500 (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor,
8 According to The Acts of Thomas, after embarking by ship to India Thomas’ boat stops at Andrapolis, presumably
an island in route. J. K. Elliot The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in
English Translation (Claredon Press, Oxford 1993) p. 488-454.
9 S. G. Pothan The Syrian Christians of Kerala (Asia Publishing Company, New York 1963) p.29.
10 G. W. B. Huntingform ed. Trans. The Periplus of the Eryphraean Sea (The Hakluyt Society, London, 1980) p.103.
11 Vialy V. Naumkin Island of the Pheonix: An Ethnographic Study of the People of Socotra (Ithaca Press 1993) p.
12 Tim Severin “In the Wake of Sinbad” National Geographic July 1982 p.2-40.
13 Charles K. Moser “The Isle of Frankincense” National Geographic March 1918 p. 267-278.
14 Shipbuilding and Navigation in Ancient India http://india.coolatlanta.com/GreatPages/sudheer/ship.html .
15 History of Aloe Vera http://www.aloeveraproducts.com/history_aloe_vera.html .
16 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited, London, 1992) p.9.
17 Samuel Hugh Moffett A History of Christianity in Asia (Harper San Francisco 1992) p.267.
18 S. G. Pothan The Syrian Christians of Kerala (Asia Publishing Company, New York 1963) p.27.
20 Ronald Latham Trans. The Travels of Marco Polo (Penguin books, London, 1958) p. 296-298.
21 Vialy V. Naumkin Island of the Pheonix: An Ethnographic Study of the People of Socotra (Ithaca Press 1993)
22 Vialy V. Naumkin Island of the Pheonix: An Ethnographic Study of the People of Socotra (Ithaca Press 1993)
23 S. G. Pothan The Syrian Christians of Kerala (Asia Publishing Company, New York 1963) p.29.
24 Francis M. Rogers The Quest for Eastern Christians: Travels and Rumor in the Age of Discovery (University of
Minnesota, University of Minnesota Press, 1962) p.169.
25 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited, 1992) p.136-144.
26 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited) 1992) p. 137.
27 Thomas J. Abercrombie “Ibn Battuta: Prince of Travelers” National Geographic December 1991 P. 5-49.
28 Ibraham Al-Ashmawi & Abdul Wali Al-Muthadi “Socotra: Island of Dreams” Tiaz Magazine No. 796. March
19,1998 http://yemeninfo.gov.ye/ENGLISH/CULTURE/islandofdreams.html Concerning the British presence on
Socotra, John Farrar served in the British Royal Air Force and Army Expedition on the island during 1964-1965 and
has created a wonderful website dedicated to Socotra and its people at www.soqotra.com .
29 Diccon Alexander and Anthony Miller “Socotra’s Misty Future” New Scientist Vol. 147 No. 1988 29 July 1995 p.
32-35 http://www.rbge.org.uk/arabia.html Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh The Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and
Socotra http://www.rbge.org.uk/arabia.html .
30 Personal correspondence of the author dated 2/23/1996.
31 From book description. Soqotra: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Soqotra Island: Present and
Future (United Nations, New York 1998).
32 Socotra Island xeric shrublands (AT1318)
33 Socotran Karst Project: Flemish Caving Expeditions
http://home2.planetinternet.be/Ido26187/Eng_aim.html For other interesting creatures see Simon Aspinall
International Research on Socotran Cormorants http://arabianwilklife.com/vo2.3/corres.html.
34 Diccon Alexander and Anthony Miller “Socotra’s Misty Future” New Scientist Vol. 147 No. 1988 29 July 1995 p.
36 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited, London, 1992) p.5.
37 A. G. Miller and T. A.Cope Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra Volume I (Edinburg University Press in
association with Royal Botanic Gardin Edinburg, Royal Botnaic Gardens, Kew, 1996) p.7,11.
38 AYTTA http://www.aytta.org/soqotra.html .
39 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958) p.22-23.
40 The Enchanted Island: Socotra Reveals Its Secrets http://www.yementimes.com/97/iss42/lastpage.html .
41 Yemen Exploration tours: Socotra http://www.al-bab.com/yet/socotra.html .
42 Marion Kaplan “Twilight of the Arab Dhow” National Geographic September 1974 p. 330-351.
43 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958) p. 215.
44 M. A. AL-Dailami “Socotra: the Forgotten Diamond of Yemen” World Magazine No. 609 12 Feb 1998
45 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited, London, 1992) p.33.
46 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958) p. 216.
47 D. Brian Doe Socotra: An Archeological Reconnaissance in 1967 (Field Research Projects, Miami, Florida 1970)
48 Brian Doe Socotra: Island of Tranquillity (Immel Publishing Limited, London, 1992) p.214.
49 “The Socotran of Yemen” http://www.bethany.com/profiles/p_code3/891.html .
50 Vialy V. Naumkin Island of the Pheonix: An Ethnographic Study of the People of Socotra (Ithaca Press 1993)
Samuel Purchas in 1625 wrote Purchas, His Pilgrims, a collection of travel narratives. In it he mentions William
Rubrucks travels among the Nestorians in Mongolia as well as the accounts of the Nestorians of Socotra..
51 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958) p. 214.
52 Yemen Exploration Tours http://www.al-bab.com/yet/soqotra.html Also in a recent article on Socotra Saleh
Abdulbaqi seems incredulous towards the possibility that Christianity was ever known on the island and cynically
makes a true statement, “This issue still requires more studies”. The condescending attitude towards non-Arabs also
appears in his comment, “Despite the spread of education in the island, Socotri unique language is still most used by
its inhabitants.” Using a non-Arabic language such as Soqotri or Assyrian must mean one is uneducated! This shows
that in some Arab countries ‘education’ is used as a tool of cultural genocide. Saleh Abdulhaqi “Socotra: The Island
of Wonders” Yemen Times 5 November 2001, Vol. XI http://www.yeenimes.com/1.is45.culture.html .
53 Yemen does have many ancient ruins, unique architecture, and a past of glorious civilizations, such as that of the
Biblical Queen of Sheba. The Yemenites are a proud and hospitable people who are eager to share their fascinating
heritage with the rest of the world. On the other hand there are serious terrorist threats in Yemen and practically the
entire population is addicted to a drug called qat. A bulk of the population spends most of the day procuring large
quantities of qat which they chew until they reach the drug-induced stupor. Nevertheless, a visit to Yemen would be
a rewarding experience to a cautious and intrepid traveler.
54 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958)p.125 Unfortunately the
Wahibis are still around and are particularly active in Saudi Arabia. They are behind many of the acts of religious
terror carried out in the name of Islam in many parts of the world today from the Philippines to the United States.
55 Douglas Botting Island of the Dragon’s Blood (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1958) p.23.
We have two important historical facts which confirm the founding of the Church of the East in the Southern region of Beth Nahrain (Mesopotamia), in Babylon during the early years of the spread of Christianity.
- The first letter written by St. Peter the Apostle
We read the first proof in the New Testament, at the end of St. Peter’s first letter where he wrote:
“The chosen church which is at Babylon and Mark, my son, salutes you.” (5: 13)
When reading this plainly worded passage from St. Peter’s first letter, the reader is entitled to conclude that St. Peter wrote his letter from Babylon. However, a number of biblical scholars and academics say that this interpretation of this biblical passage is incorrect and is no more than a popular tradition that has had its roots and has evolved in the teachings of the Church of the East over the past two thousand years. They further add that the interpretation is not based on a historical fact, and that St. Peter went straight from Antioch to Rome where a few years later he received the crown of martyrdom between the years of 64 and 68 AD, and that he at no time went to the Church of the East territory in Bet Nahrain. These interpreters of the Bible say that the word ‘Babylon’, which St. Peter used in this particular passage of his letter, referred symbolically to the city of Rome, a city which at the time was known for its evil and ungodliness, just as the ancient city of Babylon had been depicted in the Old Testament.
There are many who view this interpretation as strange and somewhat fanciful, because St. Peter clearly wrote in his letter: “The chosen church which is at Babylon…” which clearly specifies the geographical location of the Church from where the greetings were conveyed.
Even if we, for one moment, think that St. Peter did not physically go to our forefathers’ homeland in Bet Nahrain, it is not beyond the realm of probability that he may have received a letter from a Church leader or from a faithful member of the Church of East residing in Babylon in which the sender would have asked St. Peter to convey their greetings to their brothers in Christianity who resided in various provinces of the Roman Empire which at that time were located in what is now modern Turkey.
It is pleasing to note that the probability of St. Peter’s journey to Babylon in Beth Nahrain has not been completely dismissed by all biblical scholars and academics. For example, Dr. J. Barton Payne, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D., Late Professor of Old Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri USA, wrote in Young’s Bible Dictionary:
“When Peter fled from Herod Agrippa I in AD 44 (Acts 12:17) he may have removed to Babylon (Pet. 5:13), unless this last is merely a symbolic name for Rome as the corresponding harlot-city of that day (compare Rev. 17:3-6). (J.B.P.)”
- The Church of Beth Kokheh
The second proof relates to Mar ( ܡܵܪܝ – Syriac for ‘my lord’, but generally translated into English as ‘Saint’) Mari’s visit, during the second half of the first century of Christianity, to the city of Seleucia (Sliq or Saliq – ܣܠܝܼܩ\ܣܵܠܝܼܩ in Syriac) situated on the Western side of the River Tigris in Southern Bet Nahrain. Mar Mari was one of the disciples of Mar Addai (also known as St. Thaddeus). It was Mar Addai who sent Mar Mari from Edessa to Bet Nahrain.
The book of Acts of Mar Mari teaches us that Mar Mari spent some time in the Kingdom of Urhai (Edessa). He left Urhai, on instructions from his teacher Mar Addai, and headed to Nisibin and then on to Adiabene (Arbil of present day). He continued his journey southwards through Beth Garmai (situated between the Little Zab and Diyala rivers and centred around Karkha Beth Slokh which is Kirkuk of the present time) until he and his companions reached the city of Saliq on the River Tigris in Babylon.
At the beginning Mar Mari and his companions did not get a friendly reception from the pagan citizens of the city. A group of the citizens crossed the River Tigris and went straight to King Artabanus IV of Parthia’s palace in Qtispon (or Ctesiphon) and complained about these strange intruders in their midst.
King Artabanus wanted to know how true was the new faith which Mar Mari and his companions were preaching to his citizens. The King asked Mar Mari to cure his sister who was suffering from the dreadful leprosy. Mar Mari cured the King’s sister. The King was duly impressed with this and other miracles that Mar Mari performed in the locality. The King rewarded Mar Mari with a piece of land in the area called Kokheh which was located to west of his capital Qtispon. This piece of land already had a pagan temple on it which Mar Mari duly converted into a small Church and which became known as the Church of Kokheh throughout the history of the Church of the East.
The word ‘Kokheh’ – ܟܘܼܟ݂ܹ̈ܐ – is the plural for ‘kokha’ ܟܘܼܟ݂ܵܐwhich means a hut normally built from clay or cane or from twigs. That area contained a number of huts where the King’s servants and farmers lived.
The small Church of Kokheh was enlarged and modified as years went by, especially during the reign of Catholicos Mar Awa the Great ܡܵܪܝ ܐܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܪܲܒܵܐ (552 – 540).
Until about the end of the first century AD, Kokheh was located on the eastern side of the River Tigris, not far from Qtispon. However, a change in the course of the river occurred between the years 79 and 117 AD which altered the flow of the river. The river changed its course eastwards for a short distance and ended up cutting off the suburb of Kokheh from the city of Qtispon. This meant that Kokheh was now located on the Western side of the river, and all that now separated it from the city of Saliq was the dried up bed of the river before it shifted its course eastwards.
The Spread of Church of the East under the Sassanids
When the Sassanid King Ardashir I (224 – 241 AD) defeated the Parthian rulers in the year 224 and adopted the city of Qtispon as his capital, he respected the Christian followers of the Church of the East which had spread in that region. He included Beth Kokheh as a part or suburb of his capital Qtispon. He at the same time renewed and rebuilt Saliq which had been destroyed by the Romans in 165 AD and changed its name to ‘Weh Ardashir’ which means Ardashir’s good deed.
The cities of Saliq and Qtispon were joined together by two rivers. These two historical cities, together with a few other cities in the neighbourhood, were later given the collective name of Al Mada’in المدائن (Cities). Al Mada’in is the plural of المدينة (city).
The Church of the East was not only spread in the Saliq Qtispon region during those early centuries of Christian era. History teaches us that at the beginning of the third century AD the Church of the East had also centres in Adiabene (Arbel of present day), and in Karkha D’Bet Sloq (Kirkuk of the present day), and in Nisibin and also in Beth Lappat (presently located in Khuzestan in South/West Iran).
Autonomy of the Church of the East during the early Centuries
There was only one Christian Church in the early centuries of Christianity. The Church of the East used to receive guidance from the Church in Antioch or Antakya which was located within the sphere of the Roman Empire. All of the bishops of the Church of the East used to be consecrated by the Patriarch in Antioch. However, communications between the Church of the East, which was spread to the east of the Roman Empire and within the boundaries of the Persian Empire (ruled by the Parthians and later by the Sassanids), and the Church Fathers in Antioch, which fell within the boundaries of the Roman Empire, were at times difficult and dangerous due to the political situation of that era as well as the wars and disagreements that happening between the Roman and Persian rulers. This situation created the necessity for the Church of the East to be given a certain amount of autonomy. Thus, by the end of the third century the bishop of the Church of the East in Saliq Qtispon, or Bet Kokheh, was granted the title Catholicos (الجاثليق in Arabic which means general, universal) and also the administrative power over the Church affairs in the East as well as the power to consecrate bishops.
The Catholicos of the Church of the East invited to the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD
The close ties that existed between the Church of the East and the Christian Church in the Roman Empire are well recorded in The Concise Collection of Synodical Canons which was compiled in early 14th century by Mar Audisho Bar Brikha, Metropolitan of the Church of the East, diocese of Nisibin and Armenia, who died in 1318.
We read on page 22 of the handwritten Classical Syriac edition of the book King Constantine, the Roman Emperor, sent a letter in about 324 AD to all of the Bishops in the world inviting them to a Council which was to be held in Nicea (ܢܝܼܩܝܼܵܐ in Syriac) in the region of Betonia.
One of the bishops who received the Emperor Constantine’s invitation was Mar Shimun Bar Sabba’eh, Catholicos of the Church of the East in Saliq Qtispon or Beth Kokheh. Mar Shimun Bar Sabba’eh could not go the Council due to the disturbances that prevailed in the neighbouring lands. But he wrote to the Emperor Constantine saying:
“If it was not for fear from the heathens who are thirsty for our blood, I very much wanted to attend the Council in order to be blessed by the sacred Council and by your victorious kingdom. However, I shall be happy to abide by all decisions made by the Council…”
The Council of Nicea did convene in 325 AD and between 270 and 318 bishops were able to attend. Only five of the attendees came from the Western regions. The rest came from the lands that were situated to the east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Separation of the Church of the East from the Western Church
The first attempt at establishing the Church of the East as independent from the Church in the West happened in the Synod of Mar Iskhaq (Isaac) Catholicos which was convened in the Church of Kokheh in Saliq Qtispon in 410 AD.
The Synod was organised with the help of Bishop Marutha of Maipherqat who brought with him letters from the Church fathers in the West. One of the letters was for Mar Iskhaq Catholicos and another letter was for the Persian King Yazdegerd I. Mar Marutha and Mar Iskhaq went to see the King to seek royal permission to invite all of the bishops of the Church of the East in Beth Nahrain and Persia to attend a Synod in the Church at Beth Kokheh in Saliq Qtispon. Mar Marutha was a skilled physician and had managed to gain the King’s favour through medical services he had provided to the King. The King gave his permission to go ahead and convene the Synod.
Forty bishops of the Church of the East attended the first such Synod held in the East. Mar Marutha, the ambassador of the Church in the West, was also present at the Synod which became known as the Synod of Mar Iskhaq. A set of canons, which included a number which Mar Marutha brought with him from the Western fathers, were enacted by the Synod. It was also at this Synod where the creed of Nicea was adopted by the Church of the East.
Shortly after the Church of the East gained its independence and autonomy, the Church began sending missions to spread the message of Christianity in the various regions in the Persian Empire and in Central Asia and China, to the Gulf region, Yemen and various corners of the Arabian Peninsula.
Beth Nahrain under Arab Muslims
Beth Nahrain fell under the rule of Arab Muslims after the battle of Al Qadesiya which was fought in the year 636 between the Arab Muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army. Following this historical battle, Beth Nahrain was governed by the Umayyad Caliphate from the city of Damascus in Syria till the year 750 when the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs took over and moved the centre of power to Iraq. The Abbasid kings set up their initial capital in Kupha until their new capital of Baghdad was built in 762.
The Church of the East continued to prosper and expand during the first three centuries of Islam, even though the number of its followers continued to drop as a result of the harsh rules enacted for non-Muslims which consequently forced many Christians to convert to Islam. For example, Mar Temateous I (Timothy) who occupied the Patriarchal See of the Church of the East for 43 years (from 780 to 823) worked under five different caliphs and maintained cordial relations with each one of them. During his Patriarchate the Church of the East had 230 dioceses and 27 Metropolitans (Archbishops), including a new bishop for Yemen.
What became of the Church of Beth Kokheh
The name of the Church of Beth Kokheh is mentioned many times in the history of the Church of the East. The Church was the main centre for the Catholicos of the Church who was later given the title of Patriarch. In the year 544 Mar Awa Gabbarah (the Great) decreed that the consecration of a Catholicos would not be legitimate unless the consecrations ceremonies were conducted in the Church of Beth Kokheh.
As mentioned earlier in this paper, the Church was built by Mar Mari in about the year 100 AD. It was renovated and enlarged and rebuilt several times over the years and centuries. The Church remained the main centre of the See of the Catholicos, and later of the Patriarch, until the year 780 when Mar Temateous I moved the Patriarchal See from Saliq Qtispon to the new city of Baghdad. However, the great Church of Beth Kokheh retained its revered sanctity. Even though the Patriarchal See moved to the city of Baghdad in 780, the Church of Beth Kokheh retained its status as the place for the consecration of the Catholicos Patriarch. It also remained the venue for a number of Church Synods. Its holy grounds contained the graves of 24 Catholicoses, the first of whom was Mar Abris (121 – 137) and the last one was Mar Khnaneshoo II (774 – 779) in the year 779.
The last Patriarch to be consecrated in the Great Church of Beth Kokheh was Mar Temateous II (1318 – 1328).
In the year 2000 the Assyrian Church of the East conducted a church service in the approximate location of the Church of Kokheh, as part of the celebrations conducted by all of the Eastern Churches to welcome the third millennium of Christianity.
Of the few ruins of the Saliq Qtispon which remain standing to this day is the Tak-i-Kisra, or Arch of Kisra (ancient Qtispon) at Salman Pak which is located approximately 25 kilometres to the south of the city of Baghdad. The shape of this historical arch has been incorporated into the logo of the magazine Church of Beth Kokheh as a symbol of the historic spot that Saliq Qtispon and Kokheh hold in the glorious history of the Assyrian Church of the East.
- The Old and New Testaments – in English and Classical Syriac
- Young’s Bible Dictionary, General Editor Dr. G. Douglas Young, Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Wheaton, Illinois USA 1984
- Christianity in Iraq, Suha Rassam – Gracewing UK 2006
- A number of the issues of the magazine نجم المشرق (Star of the East) which was published in Arabic by the Chaldean Church Patriarchate in Baghdad, Iraq in the 1990s. The various issues of this valuable magazine contained a number of articles by the celebrated and renowned author and historian of the Church of the East, Father Alber Aboona. The articles were taken from Father Aboona’s book تاريح الكنتسة السريانية الشرقيت (The History of the Syrian Church of the East) which was published in 3 volumes by the Librairie Orientale (المكتبة الشرقية) in Beirut, Lebanon
- The Concise Collection of Synodical Canons by Mar Audisho Bar Brikha – the handwritten Syriac edition.
- The History of the Syrian Church of the East – Volume One: during the era of the Sassanid Kings ܟܬܵܒ݂ܵܐ ܕܡܲܟ݂ܬܒ݂ܵܢܘܼܬ ܙܲܒ݂ܢܹ̈ܐ ܕܥܹܕܬܵܐ ܡܲܕܢܚܵܝܬܵܐ ܕܣܘܼܪ̈ܝܵܝܹܐ – ܒܲܡܕܲܒܪܵܢܘܼܬܵܐ ܕܩܵܬܘܿܠܝܼܩܹ̈ܐ ܕܲܣܠܝܼܩ ܘܲܩܛܝܼܣܦܘܿܢ – ܐܲܨܲܚܬܵܐ ܩܲܕܡܵܝܬܵܐ: ܒܕܵܪܹ̈ܐ ܕܫܘܼܠܛܵܢܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܟܹ̈ܐ ܣܲܣܲܢܵܝܹ̈ܐ – ܐܸܬܚܬܸܡ ܒܲܡܕܝܼܢ݇ܬܵܐ ܕܐܘܿܪܡܝܼ ܒܡܲܛܒܲܥܬܵܐ ܕܲܫܠܝܼܚܹ̈ܐ ܕܐܲܪܟܐܲܦܸܣܩܘܿܦܵܐ ܕܟܲܢܬܸܪܒܘܿܪܝܼ ܒܫܲܢ݇ܬܵܐ ܡܫܝܼܚܵܝܬܵܐ ܐܨܙ 1907.
This volume was published in the vernacular Syriac in 1907 in Ormi by the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Assyrian Mission.
- A book in the Arabic language called: السريان – الاسم الحقيقي للاراميين والاشوريين والكلدان – موفق نيسكو – بيسان للنشر والتوزيع والاعلام, بيروت لبنان – 2012
(Al Siryan – The true name for the Arameans and Assyrians and Chaldeans – by Muwafaq Nisko, published by Bissan Bookshop in Beirut, Lebanon in 2012).
The ruins of Tak-i-Kisra at Salman Pak, approximately 25 kilometres to the south of the city of Baghdad
This map of Iraq shows the approximate location of Saliq, Qtispon and Kokheh
 Also called Simon – see Mathew 10:2
 Taken from Holy Bible, From Ancient Eastern Manuscripts, Containing the Old and New Testaments Translated from the Peshitta, The Authorised Bible of the Church of the East, by George M. Lamsa,– Published by A. J. Holman Company, Philadelphia USA 1967.
The Peshitta (from the Syriac word ܦܫܝܼܛܬܵܐ which means simple, straight) is the Classical Syriac version of the Bible which was translated from the Hebrew in the 2nd Century AD. By the 5th century AD it became the standard bible among numerous divisions of the Syriac Christianity. Some New Testament scholars argue that Aramaic, which later became widely known as Syriac, was the original language in which portions of the New Testament were written (see Overview to Leiden Peshitta on the Logos Bible Software website).
 Young’s Bible Dictionary was published in 1984 by Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Wheaton, Illinois USA. Its General Editor was Dr. G. Douglas Young, S.T.M., Ph.D Institute of Holy Land Studies, Jerusalem.
 See page 77 of Young’s Bible Dictionary.
 The ancient city of Seleucia (I have referred to it as ‘Saliq’ as most members of the Church of the East know it) was situated on the Western side of the river Tigris. It was modernised and expanded by Seleucus I Nicator, one of the Alexander the Great’s officers. He ruled over the Seleucid Empire from 311 BC to 280 BC. A few years later he moved his capital to Antioch in Syria, but Seleucia remained an important cultural and trade centre. During the third and second centuries BC, its fame matched that of Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria.
 The Acts of Mar Mari is a book which records the itinerary and preaching of Mar Mari in Mesopotamia until he reached Kokheh which ended up being the patriarchal seat of the Church of the East for many centuries. A copy of the book, which contains the Acts of Mar Mari in Syriac and a relevant account from Kitab al-Majdal in Arabic, both of which have been translated into English by Professor Amir Harrak (who was born and raised in Mosul, in the vicinity of Nineveh in Bet Nahrain and teaches at the University of Toronto, Canada) can be obtained on the internet.
 People within the Church of the East community often use the two names of Saliq and Qtispon joined together as ܣܵܠܝܼܩ ܘܲܩܛܝܼܣܦܘܿܢ (Saliq and Qtispon). The two cities are also referred to as ܡܕܝ̈ܢܵܬ̈ܐ ܩܵܬܘܿܠܝܼܩܝܼ (the cities forming the See of the Catholicos).
 A list of Parthian kings printed in the scholarly book The Cambridge History of Iran contains the name of a king called Artabanus IV of Parthia who ruled from 80 to 81 AD. This confirms that Mar Mari and his colleagues arrived in the region at around the same time.
 Qtispon or Ctesiphon was also already an ancient city at that time. Some biblical scholars and historians say that Qtispon was first mentioned in history in the Old Testament, Book of Ezra (Ezra 8:17) under the name Casiphia. The Book of Ezra was written sometime between 460 BC and 440 BC. The Armenians had the name ‘Tizbon’ for Qtispon.
 The classical Syriac word for singular Kokha is ܟܘܼܪܚܵܐ with the plural being ܟܘܼܪ̈ܚܹܐ.
 The present day town of Iznik situated in North West of Turkey.
 The city of Maipherqat was located in the Roman Empire between Syria and Armenia.
 Jean-Baptiste Chabot, a leading French Syriac scholar, published in 1902 in Paris a volume which included the proceedings of the first 13 Synods held by the Church of the East from the year 410 to 775, including the Synod of Mar Iskhaq held in 410 AD. The volume was titled Synodicon Orientale, copies of which can be obtained from various sources including Atour Publications. The volume is an important source of the history of the Church of the East during those early centuries of Christianity.
Al Qadesiya is a historical city in southern Beth Nahrain located southwest of al-Hillah and al-Kūfah in Iraq.
 Rules enacted in accordance to the Islamic Sharia laws that applied to non-Muslims (referred to as the Al-Dhimma – people enjoying the protection, which referred mainly to Christians and Jews).
Dr Sebastian Brock
This article originally appeared in Logos. Festschrift fur Luise Abramowski, ed. H.C. Brennecke, E.L. Gramsuck, and C. Markschies (= Beiheft, ZNTW 67). Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1993Sebastian P. Brock is widely acknowledged as the foremost and most influential academic in the field of Syriac language today. Dr Brock is a former Reader in Syriac Studies at the University of Oxford’s Oriental Institute and a Professorial Fellow at Wolfson College. He is a Fellow of the British Academy. Dr Brock completed his BA degree at the University of Cambridge, and a DPhil at the University of Oxford. He has been a prolific authour in the field of Syriac studies and his numerous publications are widely available.
Sebastian P. Brock is widely acknowledged as the foremost and most influential academic in the field of Syriac language today. Dr Brock is a former Reader in Syriac Studies at the University of Oxford’s Oriental Institute and a Professorial Fellow at Wolfson College. He is a Fellow of the British Academy. Dr Brock completed his BA degree at the University of Cambridge, and a DPhil at the University of Oxford. He has been a prolific authour in the field of Syriac studies and his numerous publications are widely available.
On a number of occasions in the East Syriac liturgical book known as the hudra (approximately a Festal Hymnary) one encounters passages which speak of “the hostage from our race” (hmayrā d-men gensan), where the reference is to the “homo assumptus”1. Thus in two passages which each recur several times we have:2
“O Lord, … Who in Your compassion lowered Yourself to Your flock, and Who, out of Your love, took from our race a peace hostage (hmayrā d-Šaynā, lit. hostage of peace) and made Him a choice for Yourself for the purpose of Your economy.”
“Blessed is the Good One … (Who) came from heaven for our salvation and took from our mortal race a hostage for His3 glory, and He granted Him to become leader and head.”
The phraseology is of course entirely in harmony with the East Syriac christological tradition with its sharply diphysite character. As it happens, in both the passages quoted the wording has been altered in the Chaldean (Eastern Rite Catholic) edition of the hudra by P. Bedjan4 and in the second one the term “hostage” has been removed altogether, reading “… and took human nature from our race and united it with His qnōmā, and He became leader and head.” Bedjan’s edition excises “hostage” on two further occasions,5 but in others it has been left; his hesitance in dealing with such phraseology in fact turns out to have been unnecessary, for (as we shall see) it can be traced back to roots respected by Chalcedonian as wel as by strictly East Syrian tradition. Before turning to these roots, however, it will be important to look at the wider background of the term “hmayrā,” or “hostage.”
Syriac “hmayrā” is a loanword from Greek ὃμηροϚ, and the borrowing must have taken place very early in the history of Classical Syriac for it already features a number of times in the Peshitta Old Testament.6 Although by no means a common word, it occurs in native Syriac writers of all periods7 and still features in two recent dictionaries of Syrian Orthodox provenance, thus representing twentieth-century usage.8
Greek ὃμηροϚ and Syriac “hmayrā” started out with entirely different connotations from those that the term “hostage” has acquired in the present century, above all in the light of events of recent years in the Middle East. In antiquity9 the hostage was not seize by violence, but was handed over by one side to another as a pledge that the first side would honour an agreement into which it had entered.10 Very often the relationship between the two sides would be that of a vassal kingdom and an imperial power (i.e.m in late antiquity, Roman or Sasanian), but on occasion the two sides might be equals who exchange hostages (as happened after the peace treaty between Persia and Rome in 363.)11
Where there is imparity in the status of the two parties (and this is of course the model behind the theological use of the imagery) the hostage concerned would be selected, mostly from among younger members of the royal family, by the hostage-giving side;12 furthermore (and again in total contrast to modern times) the hostage was well treated13, and very often the hostage would benefit from an education that would probably be far superior to what he might have received at home.14 The results of such an education can be observed in the pretentious verse epigram which Antonius, son of Abgar IX., put on the tombstone of his brother who had died in Rome:15 we learn from Dio Cassius16 that Abgar IX. had been detained in Rome by Caracalla, and though Dio does not specify that his two sons were kept there as hostages, it seems likely that this was the case, given the evidently rather tense relationship between Rome and the Kingdom of Osrhoene at the time (in 213 Edessa was made into a colonia).17
“Hmayrā” in the literal sense occurs a number of times in surviving Syriac literature. Aphrahat speaks of Hezekiah’s children being “led off as hostages to the King of Babylon” (sic)18; likewise Daniel “was led off as a hostage on behalf of his people”.19 Elsewhere, referring to events in the fourth century AD, we hear of daughter of a king of Armenia held “in hostage” (ba-hmayrā) at some stronghold in Media who nevertheless managed to steal the corpse of the martyr Aqqebshma20, while the so-called “Julian Romance” mentions Roman hostages which the Persians took in the peace settlement of 363.21 Temporary hostages, taken from Edessan nobility by Kawad a hundred and forty years later, are mentioned in the Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite.22 A particularly instructive passage in the Chronicon ad annum 123423 tells how, at the end of the siege of Constantinople in 626, the Persians “sent to heraklios and made an accord and peace with him, and they gave him hostages to confirm the agreement that had taken place between them, the hostages being selected by the emporor from among the children and brothers of the Persians, among whom was also the son of Shahbaraz.” Here, remarkably, the normal pattern of Byzantine-Sasanian parity is evidently broken, and the hostages are selected by the receiving party.
More of direct interest for the background of “hmayrā” in a christological context are various metaphorical uses of the term. In Ephrem the children killed by Herod are “slain hostages, clothed in symbols of the killing of the Slain King”;24 probably taking his cue from this passage Narsai says that “the children became, through their slaughter, peace hostages, and the King in His love received them as firstfruit.”25 Dead children are likewise referred to as “hostages” by Jacob of Serugh;26 in this case they are Job’s, and Jacob has Job rebut Satan with the words “Blessed is (God) who has taken off for Himself ten hostages from His householder, and now they are looked after by Him, for He is going to make them live in His royal palace.” In another memra by Jacob27 we find Abraham telling Isaac, as he prepares to sacrifice him, “I am going to send you off as a hostage to the great King; set off, and wait for me in the Kingdom on high until I come myself.”
In these passages the hostages’ future home at the court of the heavenly King is clearly seen as being to their own advantage, as well as to that of those who provide them. The paradox of the hostages being killed, or dead, no doubt has its roots in the paradox of the Christian proclamation of the “Slain King.” The connection between hostages and death in these literary uses of the metaphor also turns up in a somewhat different context, where the hostages instead escape from death. In his homily on Enoch and Elijah Narsai says of Enoch that “the Lord of the universe took him as a peace hostage and preserved him in life in order that he might prolclaim life to the members of his race.”28 Similarly, in another of his homilies Narsai states that God took Enoch and Elijah as “hostages of love, for the peace of humanity; and as long as they are in the abode of life our hope is assured.”29 It may well be that Cyrus of Edessa had this passage in mind when he said concerning Elijah “that he would be taken from this temporal abode as a hostage of immortal life, and he would be preserved in the spiritual treasury as a pledge (rahbōnā, ὰρραβών) of the resurrection.”30 “Hostage” in the context of escape from death is also used in connection with the three people whom Christ raised from the dead; thus Narsai writes that Christ “led off three hostages from Death, the corruptor of humanity, until He should demand from him the entire creation, at the end of time.”31
The last passage is very close to another context in which Death is envisaged as handling over a hostage to Christ. In his series of poems on the Descent of Christ to Sheol Ephrem speaks of Death as finally offering to hand over Adam as a hostage for Christ to take off to His kingdom:32
(Death Speaks) “O Jesus the King, accept my petition,
and with my petition take for Yourself a hostage:
lead off Adam as a noble hostage,
for in him are buried all the dead, just as, when I received him,
all the living were hidden in him.
As a first hostage I have given You the body of Adam;
ascend now, and reign over all:
when I hear Your clarion-call
I will bring out the dead with my own hands, for Your advent.”
A variation on the same theme is found in Ephrem’s Sermo de Domino Nostro XXV: “The heavenly King put on armour of humility and vanquished the embittered one, leading off from him, as a hostage, word of good conduct.”
The transition from Adam as the hostage led off by Christ from Death to the “body of Adam” which the divine Word “put on” is surprisingly enough provided by an archaic Syrian Orthodox baptismal ordo, where in a long series of adjurations, the priest addresses Satan as follows:33
“I adjure you by Him who put on the body of Adam, and ascended and sat at the right hand of Him who sent Him, and He made it (sc. the body of Adam) a hostage between heaven and earth, breaking down the barrier of enmity (Eph 2,14) and effecting peace between Father and His creation.”
This passage neatly illustrates how easy it was to move from Adam, the hostage taken off from Death by Christ, and to shift to “the body of Adam,” assumed, or “put on” by the Word, which is itself now described as a hostage, and at the same time is separated from the theme of the Descent. In the aftermath of the christological controversies of the 430s such language of (in modern terminology) the “homo assumptus” was confined to the Church of the East, and so it is no surprise to find Narsai have God tell Abraham:34
“I am asking of you a sacrifice of love, Abraham My friend,
offer it up to me as the right ordering of love demands.
I intend to take from his daughters a hostage for peace;
tread out a path for truth by means of a sacrifice in symbol.”
“You have led off a peace hostage from our race that is riddled with wrongdoings
now He (sc. the “homo assumptus”) is escorted with the glories of Your divinity.”
Similarly (but reverting to the Descent theme) Cyrus of Edessa speaks of “those things which God, with His divine power, has brought about with us by means of the resurrection from the dead of the hostage who brought about (lit. of) our reconciliation, our Lord Christ.”36
No doubt it is writers like Narsai and Cyrus of Edessa who provide the more immediate background to the imagery of Christ has a hostage that we encounter in the hudra. But, as the occurrence of the theme in an archaic Syrian Orthodox baptismal ordo suggests, its roots go back a long way in Syriac tradition, and the usage can be found already in both Aphrahat and Ephrem in the fourth century.
We have already seen that Aphrahat introduces the term “hostage” into a biblical context. In one such passage which has already been quoted37, after saying that Daniel was led off as a hostage on behalf of his people,” Aphrahat goes on “and the body of Jesus was a hostage on behalf of all peoples.” He introduces the same theme in three other passages, particularly important among which is Demonstration XXIII, 5138, where the association with Adam is also found:
“Great is the gift of the Good (God) towards us, for there has been led off from us a hostage by the King, one who is appropriate to Him, and He has made Him a friend and guardian of the border – that is to say, the Son of Adam, the body from Mary which was taken from among us to the region of life; and (that) weak body became strong, and it received a glory greater and more wonderful than that which Adam stripped off at his (fall to) low estate.”
Another passage in Demonstration XXIII, dated 345, is also worth quoting at some length, since it provides the key to interpreting what would otherwise be an obscure passage in Demonstration VI, written nearly a decade earlier, in 337. Demonstration XXIII, 50 reads:39
“When He (sc. the King) came, He took a pledge (rahbōnā) from us and went (back) to His place; and He said to us, “You are in Me, and I am in you” (John 14:20), and the Apostle said “He raised us up and sat us with Him in Heaven” (Eph 2:6). The “head” of our resurrection is the body which He put on from us; and He freed it from subjection and raised it up to Himself; He confirmed His promises to us, that we should be with Him, openly saying, “Where I am, you too shall be” (John 14:3). Henceforth let us rejoice in the hostage which has been led off from us and (now) sits in glory with the glorious King.”
“Putting on the body” is of course a standard metaphor for the incarnation in early Syriac writers;40 what is important to recognise is the freedom and variety of terminology in connection with the metaphor of “putting on”: the Word (in Aphrahat’s language here, “the King”) may put on the body, the body of Adam, our body, humanity, or even Adam. It seems clear that Adam typology is rarely far away from the mind of these authors, and it is this close connection between Adam’s body as the hostage given by Death to Jesus the King (Ephrem) and Adam’s body which the Word puts on at the incarnation that provides the origins of the sort of language we encounter in the East Syrian hudra.
The passage from Aphrahat just cited is also of interest in that it describes the body which the King puts on as a “pledge” (rahbōnā, ὰρραβών) as well as a “hostage”; this provides us with our sole link with Greek tradition, for, whereas ὃμηροϚ never (to my knowledge) is used of Christ’s body, ὰρραβών occasionally is.41
Aphrahat’s quotation of verses from John 14 in the course of this passage enables us to unravel a rather dense sentence in Demonstration VI, 10,42 where Aphrahat exhorts his readers with the words “Let us bring up/magnify (nrabbe, a double entendre is intended)43 well the King’s Son who is with us, seeing that a hostage in exchange for Him (hlāpaw[hy]) has been led off from us.” In the light of Demonstration XXIII, 50 we can see that “the King’s Son who is with us” is the indwelling presence of Christ in believers, while the hostage is the resurrected body of Adam which the King’s Son (simply a variant title, alongside King, for the Word) had put on. Aphrahat can thus be seen to be pointing to the idea of complementarity in salvation history: at the incarnation the King’s Son puts on the body of Adam, and then at the Resurrection He takes this “hostage” from humanity and enthrones Him at the right hand of the King, His Father; in exchange for this hostage, who is brought up in the court of Heaven, we are to bring up (in the sense of allow to grow, as far as His presense within us is concerned) and magnify the King’s Son whom we have ourselves “put on” at baptism. Elsewhere, of course, the indwelling presence of Christ is spoken of as ὰρραβών,44 so that we then have the fully balance picture: Christ’s human body is the hmayrā from the subordinate human ream taken to the Kingdom of Heaven, while Christ’s indwelling Spirit is the rahbōnā/ὰρραβών which baptised humanity receives in exchange (Aphrahat in this passage expresses it the other way round).45 Exactly the same scenario is envisaged by Ephrem in two passages. The clearest is in the Commentary on the Diatessaron XXI, 33:
“Seeing that a pledge (rahbōnā) of life (or, salvation) had been taken by Him from those subjected to death, and from (human) nature over which death had come to reign, He was raised up and He enthroned him, the hostage from (lit. of) those below, at the right hand: and he furthermore sent them a true pledge (rahbōnā) from His own nature, (namely) the Spirit, the Paraclete, (as) the pledge of life/salvation.”
Even though the Commentary on the Diatessaron may not be exactly from Ephrem46 in its present form, much of its thought is in harmony with that of the genuine hymns, and the gist of the present passage is closely paralleled in one of the Nativity hymns (XXII, 40):
“Depth and Height stood amazed that Your Nativity has subdued the rebels; for we have provided a hostage47 for You, You have given us the Paraclete: a hostage went up from us, the Commander, descended to us. Blessed is He who took and who sent.”
In the previous stanza Ephrem had provided the background of clothing imagery and the idea of exchange:
“… You put on our visible body: Your hidden power will clothe us!48
Our body became Your garment, Your Spirit has become our robe,
Blessed is He who has adorned – and adorned us.”
It is noticeable how earlier writers, and especially Aphrahat and Ephrem, usually introduce the idea of God as King whenever they employ hostage imagery: the position and role of hostages in power politics of their time was clearly very much a reality in their minds. By contrast, in the passages in the hudra where Christ’s body, the “homo assumptus,” is described as a “hostage,” the connection between hostages and kings has evidently faded into the background for in only in one of these passages (no. 7) is the Father or the Word described or addressed as King, even though this title is frequent enough elsewhere.49
Early Syriac theological writing is characterised by a wealth of imagery, intended to point to the variety of the different aspects of the mystery of the incarnation. With the advent of the christolotical controversies, certain images became suspect in the eyes of one side of the theological divide and so were dropped by that party, and left to survive only in the writing of their opponents.50 Such was the fate of the imagery of the hostage, a notable feature of the fourth-century Syriac writers Aphrahat and Ephrem, but dropped by the subsequent West Syriac tradition.51 Even in the East Syrian tradition its survival is almost entirely confined to a verse or liturgical texts, being entirely absent from such writers as babai the Great; nor is this surprising, for prose writers by then were primarily concerened with the theological agenda and terminology that originated in the Greek tradition.
It is a particular pleasure to offer this brief exploration of a distinctive metaphor belonging the East Syrian christological tradition to a scholar who has illuminated that tradition with such acumen, insight and distinction.
In the printed editions of the East Syrian hudra “hmayrā” evidently occurs only in christological context; the following list provides all the passages which I have noticed. H denotes Darmo’s edition, and BC refers to the Chaldean form edited by Bedjan (for references, see notes 1 and 4. I have deliberately kept the translations rather literal).
The first two passages feature on several occasions.
- “O Lord … who lowered Yourself to it (= Your flock) in Your compassion, and who took from our race a Hostage of peace, out of Your love, 1and made him a choice abode for Yourself for the intention of Your economy1.”
1…1 “and You united him with Your divine qnŌmā for the fulfilling of Your economy” BC.
H I, 221 = BC I, 130 (2nd Sun. After Epiphany); H I, 227 = BC I, 134 (Mon. Epiphany week 2); H I, 492 (Tues. Epiphany week 7; BC different); H II, 120 (Sun. Entry of Fast; BC omits); H II, p. 372 (Sat. Fast week 5; BC different); H III, 578 = BC III, 404 (Mon. Consecration of Church, week 1); H III, 605 = BC III, 427 (Fri. Consecration of Church, week 3); H III, 620 = BC III, 439 (Thurs. Consecration, week 4).
- “Blessed is the Good One … and He came from heaven for our salvation, and took from our mortal race1 a Hostage for his honour2, and He gave him to become1 leader and head.”
1…1 “human nature, and united it with His qnŌmā, and He became” BC III, 116, 120.
2 “for His qnŌmā” BC I, 125.
Consonant with this passage is the gloss “izgaddā” which is given to ” hmayrā” in Bar ‘Ali’s Lexicon (see R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus I, col. 1020).
H I, 215 = BC I, 125 (Tues. Epiphany week 1); H I, 226 (Mon. Epiphany week 2); BC different); H III, 135 (Pentecost; BC different); H III, 199 = BC III, 116 (Sun. Apostles week 3); H III, 204 = BC III, 120 (Tues. Apostles week 3); H III, 700 (Exaltation of Cross; BC different).
- “Blessed is the Hostage from our race who revealed His glory in our humanity, and who was baptised, in order to sanctify us, by John His best man (hdŌgeh).”
H I, 638 = BC I, 413 (Epiphany).
- “The Father cried out, the Son was baptised, and the Spirit descended1 on the member of our race (bar gensan), the Second Adam, the Hostage who was from (among) us1.”
1 … 1 “in the type of a dove the Spirit descended and remained with Him” BC.
H I, 242 = BC I, 147 (Sun. Epiphany week 4).
- “In fear all heavenly and earthly beings stand amazed, not daring to look upon Him, upon the Mystery, the Hostage who (is) for their salvation (or, life.”
H II, 468 = BC II, 344 (Wed. Fast week 7).
- “Mighty salvation has taken place for us, for our Saviour has arisen from the tomb. Let all peoples send up glory1 to the hostage which he took from us1.”
1 … 1 to Jesus the King, member of our race” BC.
H II, 537 = BC II, 397 (Resurrection).
- “Praise to our King, full of mercy, who saved us in (the person of) the Hostage who was from us; O Lord of all, praise to You.”
H III, 667 (Transfiguration, BC different).
- “To the Hidden One who dwells in the heights, who bent down in His love towards our race in order to enrich us with the wealth of His divinity, and to make us heirs in His Kindgom; and he took from our race a hostage to his honour, and made him a temple (ναὀς) for His hidden nature, by (means of) the equal union in which there is no split or division.”
H III, 676 (Transfiguration; BC different).
- “And You, O Lord, (are) the Hostage who is from our race, in the first firstfruits (1 Cor 15:20) which You took from us.”
H I-III, 80 of appendix = BC I-III, 74 of appendix (Qala 9).
- “… who lowered Himself to humility in order to raise up our fallen state to the exalted rank of His divinity; and in (the person of) the Hostage He took from us, He associated us in the glory of His majesty.”
H I-III, 147 of appendix = BC I-III, 131 of appendix (Qala 16).
One final passage is worth noting, even though the “hmayrā” does not occur there:
“Had you not, O Lord, profited us on high in heaven with the fugitive (srīdā) from us, who pleases You continually, we might have resembled Sodom in the wickedness of our actions.”
H III, 515 (Tues. Moses week 1; om BC III, 351-352). The passage based on Isaiah 1:9 where the term “srīdā” occurs in the Peshitta, both in the Old Testament and in the verse’s quotation in Rom 9:29 (Greek σπἑρμα; the Syriac translator here, as elsewhere, deliberately adopts the phraseology of the Syriac OT).
1 I use the edition of the hudra edited by T. Darmo, Ktābā da-qdām wad-bātar wad-hudra wad-kaškōl wad-gazzā w-qālē d-‘udrānē ‘am ktābā d-mazmūrē (3 vols.), Trichur 1960-62 (= H); the relevant passages are collected and translated in the Appendix.
2 For references, see Appendix, passages no. 1 and 2.
3 It is not clear to whom the suffix refers: it could be “the Good One “(i.e. joining the hostage to his own glory), or the hostage (i.e. for his glory, or “our mortal race” (i.e. its glory); the first is perhaps the most consonant with the East Syrian christological tradition is general.
4 P. Bedjan, Breviarium iuxta ritum syrorum orientalium id est Chaldaeorum (3 vols.), repr. Rome 1938 (= BC). For the alteration to the first passage, see the Appendix (no. 1).
5 See Appendix, passages 4 and 6
6 Num 21:29 (Hebrew pe-lēt(īm); Isaiah 18:2 (Hebrew Şīrīm); I Macc 1:10; 7:7; 9:53; 10:6-9; 11:62; 13:16.
7 Examples from Aphrahat, Ephrem, Liber Graduum, Narsai, Jacob of Serugh etc. are quoted below; some further references can be found in the standard lexica. For Aphrahat, see also A. Schall, Studient Über griedscische FremdwÖrter im Syrischen, Darmstadt 1960, 100.
8 It is present in S. Atto’s SuryaniÇe-TurkÇe SÖzluk, Enschede 1990, and in Kyrillus Jacob and Asmar Elkhoury’s The Guide: the First Literacy-Colloquial Syriac Dictionary, Stockholm 1985. For the background to these dictionaries see my “Some observations on the use of Classical Syriac in the late twentieth century”, ISSt 34 (1989) 363-375.
9 For hostages in the Late Antiquity see A. Aymard, Les otages barbares du début de l”empire, JRS 51 (1961) 136-142; D. Braund, Rome and the Friendly King, London 1984, 12-16; J. Matthews Hostages, philosophers and pilgrims, and the diffusion of ideas in the Late Roman Mediterranean and Near East, in; F.M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys (eds.), Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity, Madison 1989, 29-49, esp. 37-41; A.D. Lee, The role of hostages in Roman diplomacy with Sasanian Persia, hist. 40 (1991) 366-374. From the linguistic point of view; R. Roos, Oἱ ὁμηρεύοτες. On the terminology of ancient hostages, in: S.-T. Teodorsson (ed.), Greek and Latin Studies in Memory of C. Fabricius, SLS 54 (1990) 158-164.
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